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Samba Purana

Exploring the Worship of Surya


The Samba Purana, also known as the Samba Purana, is an ancient Hindu text belonging to the Saura Upapuranas, a collection of subsidiary Puranas dedicated to the worship of Surya, the sun god. While not as widely recognized as some of the major Puranas, the Samba Purana holds significance for its focus on the worship of Surya and its detailed narratives related to creation, solar system, eclipses, geography, and the customs and rituals associated with the worship of the sun god. This comprehensive article aims to delve into the rich content of the Samba Purana, exploring its themes, narratives, historical context, and the importance of Surya in Hindu religious practices.

Content of the Samba Purana:

The Samba Purana encompasses a wide range of topics related to the worship of Surya and provides valuable insights into various aspects of Hindu cosmology, theology, and religious practices. The text consists of 84 chapters in its printed editions, with chapters 53-68 further divided into 15 Paṭalas. Let us explore some of the prominent themes covered in the Samba Purana:

Worship of Surya:

The primary focus of the Samba Purana is the worship of Surya, the sun god. The text offers detailed descriptions of Surya and his attendants, emphasizing the rituals, mantras, and customs associated with the worship of the sun god. It provides guidance on constructing images of Surya and offers instructions on performing various religious practices to honor him.

Narrative of Samba’s Affliction and Cure:

The Samba Purana narrates the story of Samba, the son of Krishna, who is cursed by the sage Durvasa and subsequently afflicted with leprosy. Samba seeks a cure for his affliction and is advised by the sage Narada to worship Surya. The text details Samba’s journey to Mitravana, where he constructs a temple and engages in rigorous tapas (austerity) to seek the blessings of Surya. Through his devotion and worship, Samba ultimately finds a cure for his leprosy, illustrating the power of Surya’s grace and the efficacy of his worship.

The Discovery of Surya’s Idol:

In the Samba Purana, Samba discovers an idol of Surya while meditating on the banks of the Chandrabhaga (Chinab) river. This significant event leads to the establishment of the temple in Mitravana, where the idol is worshipped by Samba and the Maga Brahmins, whom he invites from Shakadvipa.

Role of Maga Brahmins:

The Samba Purana highlights the role of the Maga Brahmins in the worship of Surya. According to the text, Samba realizes that only the Maga Brahmins from Shakadvipa possess the knowledge and expertise required to perform the rituals and ceremonies associated with the worship of the idol. Samba undertakes a journey to Shakadvipa, where he brings back 18 families of Maga Brahmins to Mitravana, with the divine assistance of Garuda, the mythical bird. The text emphasizes the unique practices and recitations of the Maga Brahmins and their indispensable role in the worship of Surya.

Historical Context:

The Samba Purana is believed to have been composed between the 7th and 9th centuries CE, as per the research conducted by R.C. Hazra, a renowned scholar of Puranic literature. However, it is important to note that the text predates the 11th century CE, as evidenced by the Govindpur inscription discovered by Cunningham in the Gaya district. The inscription, dated Saka 1059 (1137-38 CE), confirms the presence and influence of the Maga Brahmins and their involvement in the worship of Surya, as described in the Samba Purana. This inscription serves as an archaeological and historical testimony to the antiquity of the Samba Purana and the existence of its traditions.

Significance and Influence:

The Samba Purana holds significance for its focus on the worship of Surya, a deity revered for his role as the sun god and his association with light, warmth, and life-giving energy. The text provides devotees with a comprehensive guide to the rituals, mantras, and customs associated with Surya worship, offering a pathway to seek blessings, divine grace, and spiritual enlightenment. It emphasizes the importance of devotion, austerity, and adherence to prescribed practices to attain desired outcomes and spiritual well-being.

The Samba Purana also sheds light on the broader theological and cosmological aspects of Hinduism, including narratives of creation, cosmology, and the significance of celestial bodies. It enriches the understanding of Hindu religious practices, highlighting the diverse ways in which the sun god is venerated and his pivotal role in sustaining life and ensuring cosmic order.


The Samba Purana, with its focuson the worship of Surya, provides invaluable insights into the religious practices, rituals, and customs associated with the veneration of the sun god in Hinduism. Through its narratives and detailed descriptions, the text guides devotees on constructing images of Surya, performing worship rituals, reciting mantras, and engaging in austerities to seek the blessings and grace of the deity.

The story of Samba’s affliction and cure serves as a central narrative, illustrating the transformative power of devotion and the efficacy of Surya worship. Samba’s journey to Mitravana, the discovery of Surya’s idol, and the invitation of Maga Brahmins from Shakadvipa all contribute to the richness and significance of the Samba Purana. The inclusion of these narratives showcases the role of specific individuals, places, and practices in the worship of Surya, highlighting the diversity and regional variations within Hindu religious traditions.

The historical context of the Samba Purana, established through archaeological evidence and inscriptions, confirms its antiquity and the existence of its traditions. The inscription discovered in Govindpur further affirms the influence of the Maga Brahmins and their involvement in the worship of Surya, as depicted in the text.

The Samba Purana not only serves as a guide for practitioners of Surya worship but also contributes to a broader understanding of Hindu cosmology, theology, and religious practices. By exploring themes related to creation, solar system, geography, and customs, the text enriches our knowledge of Hindu religious traditions and their interconnectedness with the natural world.

In conclusion, the Samba Purana stands as a significant text within the Saura Upapuranas, offering devotees a comprehensive resource on the worship of Surya. Its narratives, rituals, and descriptions provide a deeper understanding of the significance of the sun god in Hinduism and the various ways in which devotees can engage in worship to seek spiritual growth and enlightenment. As a testament to the enduring legacy of Surya worship, the Samba Purana continues to inspire and guide devotees in their religious practices, emphasizing the importance of devotion, rituals, and the pursuit of divine grace.

Editor – Kaalchakra Team

[ Note – Before Concluding anything as a Finale, Please Go through Original Scriptures of Vaidik Literature Written in Sanskrit and Also with Meaning of That time of Language. Because English is a Limited language to Explaining the Deeper Knowledge of Vaidik Kaal. ]